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Burning and plume flow behaviors of annular pool fires: with and without air entrainment through the pool center

Annular pool fires, frequently happened in chemical industries, have a significant influence on environmental pollution. Air pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, water pollution, and soil contamination are general ways of environmental hazards caused by the annular pool fires. This study built upon our previous study (Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res., 2023, 30(21): 59781–59792.), and extended to investigate the combustion and fire plume flow behaviors of annular pool fires, both with and without air entrainment through the hollow center of the annular pool. Results show that when there is no air entrainment through the hollow center, the low combustion intensity area at the plume’s central axis gradually extends while the high combustion intensity area concentrates at higher places and the flame height increased by nearly 40% from a solid pool (Din/Dout?=?0) to the annular pool (Din/Dout?=?0.80). Additionally, the area with high combustion intensity is more concentrated at a higher position. The combustion of annular pool fires was found to be dominated by non-premixed diffusion combustion. The center of the annular pool fires is dominated by air prior to flame merging and by fuel vapor after the merging occurs. For annular pool fires with air entrainment through the center of the pool, the combustion intensity increases as Din/Dout at the plume base increases. And, the flame height decreased by nearly 25% as Din/Dout increases. Flame burning occurs both on the outside and inside of the plume, exhibiting a “double layer” combustion characteristic. It reveals that the combustion of the fire plume transitions to premixed diffusion combustion. The center of the annular pool fire is predominantly composed of air. Understanding and controlling annular pool fires can lead to new methods for remediating fuel spills, reducing pollution from combustion, and advancing research in fluid mechanics.


This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 870292.