Actinobacteria as Microbial Cell Factories and Biocatalysts in The Synthesis of Chiral Intermediates and Bioactive Molecules; Insights and Applications
Actinobacteria are one of the most intriguing bacterial phyla in terms of chemical diversity and bioactivities of their reported biomolecules and natural products, including various types of chiral molecules. Actinobacterial genera such as Detzia, Mycobacterium, and Streptomyces are among the microbial sources targeted for selective reactions such as asymmetric biocatalysis catalyzed by whole cells or enzymes induced in their cell niche. Remarkably, stereoselective reactions catalyzed by actinobacterial whole cells or their enzymes include stereoselective oxidation, stereoselective reduction, kinetic resolution, asymmetric hydrolysis, and selective transamination, among others. Species of actinobacteria function with high chemo?, regio?, and enantio?selectivity under benign conditions, which could help current industrial processing. Numerous selective enzymes were either isolated from actinobacteria or expressed from actinobacteria in other microbes and hence exploited in the production of pure organic compounds difficult to obtain chemically. In addition, different species of actinobacteria, especially Streptomyces species, function as natural producers of chiral molecules of therapeutic importance. Herein, we discuss some of the most outstanding contributions of actinobacteria to asymmetric biocatalysis, which are important in the organic and/or pharmaceutical industries. In addition, we highlight the role of actinobacteria as microbial cell factories for chiral natural products with insights into their various biological potentialities.