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Green magnetic nanoparticles: a comprehensive review of recent progress in biomedical and environmental applications

Abstract Because of their many advantages, such as simplicity of handling, affordability, and environmental friendliness, green magnetic nanoparticles (GMNPs) are currently receiving more attention than prevailing magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). The synthesis and application of GMNPs inspired by biological systems are encouraged by rising ecological consciousness and stringent environmental restrictions and also deal with in detail in this manuscript. The current report presents the biological and environmental uses of GMNPs in-depth. Numerous biomedical applications, including imaging and diagnosis, cancer therapy, immunoassay, genetic engineering, and supported enzymes (proteins and peptides), among others, successfully use GMNPs. The GMNPs would be coupled with tiny sensors, microsystems, and microfluidics modules to boost the signal sensitivity for the identification of environmental contaminants, diseases, poisons, drugs, and trace biomarkers from clinical, environmental, and dietary examples. The GMNPs were essential elements in gene delivery and gene therapy initiatives, among other genetic engineering endeavors. They have also been extensively used for environmental applications such as wastewater treatment, organic pollutants decontamination, electrochemical sensing, industrial and radioactive wastes treatment, pollutant adsorption and removal etc. The use of GMNPs, particularly biosynthesized MNPs, is also believed to be more cost-effective than the majority of regularly used traditional MNPs. In addition, Green magnetic nanoparticles applied as supported enzymes, proteins and peptides catalyst, positron emission tomography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, theranostics, thermo-chemotherapy, electrochemical immunoassay and efficient detection of coronavirus is a significant issue in modern analytical chemistry and other fields. The opportunities of using GMNPs in the place of traditional MNPs have also been proposed.

Graphical abstract

Publication date: 21/12/2023

Journal of Materials Science


This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 870292.