Exploring the potential of amyloids in biomedical applications: A review
Amyloid is defined as a fibrous quaternary structure formed by assembling protein or peptide monomers into intermolecularly hydrogen linked ??sheets. There is a prevalent issue with protein aggregation and the buildup of amyloid molecules, which results in human neurological illnesses including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. But it is now evident that many organisms, like bacteria, fungi as well as humans, use the same fibrillar structure to carry out a variety of biological functions, such as structure and protection supporting interface transitions and cell–cell recognition, protein control and storage, epigenetic inheritance, and memory. Recent discoveries of self?assembling amyloidogenic peptides and proteins, based on the amyloid core structure, give rise to interesting biomaterials with potential uses in numerous industries. These functions dramatically diverge from the initial conception of amyloid fibrils as intrinsically diseased entities. Apart from the natural ability of amyloids to spontaneously arrange themselves and their exceptional material characteristics, this aspect has prompted extensive research into engineering artificial amyloids for generating various nanostructures, molecular substances, and combined materials. Here, we discuss significant developments in the artificial design of useful amyloids as well as how amyloid materials serve as examples of how function emerges from protein self?assembly at various length scales.