Advances in the Preparation of Tough Conductive Hydrogels for Flexible Sensors
The rapid development of tough conductive hydrogels has led to considerable progress in the fields of tissue engineering, soft robots, flexible electronics, etc. Compared to other kinds of traditional sensing materials, tough conductive hydrogels have advantages in flexibility, stretchability and biocompatibility due to their biological structures. Numerous hydrogel flexible sensors have been developed based on specific demands for practical applications. This review focuses on tough conductive hydrogels for flexible sensors. Representative tactics to construct tough hydrogels and strategies to fulfill conductivity, which are of significance to fabricating tough conductive hydrogels, are briefly reviewed. Then, diverse tough conductive hydrogels are presented and discussed. Additionally, recent advancements in flexible sensors assembled with different tough conductive hydrogels as well as various designed structures and their sensing performances are demonstrated in detail. Applications, including the wearable skins, bionic muscles and robotic systems of these hydrogel-based flexible sensors with resistive and capacitive modes are discussed. Some perspectives on tough conductive hydrogels for flexible sensors are also stated at the end. This review will provide a comprehensive understanding of tough conductive hydrogels and will offer clues to researchers who have interests in pursuing flexible sensors.