Application of Mineralized Chitosan Scaffolds in Bone Tissue Engineering
Chitosan (CS) is a natural cationic polysaccharide obtained via the N-deacetylation of chitin. It has various outstanding biological properties such as nontoxicity, biodegradability, biocompatibility, and antimicrobial properties. Minerals can be deposited on the CS template using different methods to construct composites with structures and functions similar to those of natural bone tissue. These ideal scaffolds can produce bone via osteogenesis, osteoinduction, and osteoconduction, with good biocompatibility and mechanical properties, and are thus considered promising novel biomaterials for repairing hard tissue defects. In the last decade, the field of mineralized CS scaffolds has provided novel fundamental knowledge and techniques to better understand the aforementioned fascinating phenomenon. This study mainly focused on the basic structures and properties of mineralized CS scaffolds to understand the current research progress and explore further development. Further, it summarizes the types, preparation methods, components, properties, and applications of mineralized CS scaffolds in bone tissue engineering during the last 5 years. The defects and shortcomings of the scaffolds are discussed, and possible improvement measures are put forward. We aimed to provide complete research progress on mineralized CS scaffolds in bone tissue engineering for researchers and clinicians, and also ideas for the next generation of mineralized CS scaffolds.