Synthetic Calcium&ndash;Phosphate Materials for Bone Grafting
Synthetic bone grafting materials play a significant role in various medical applications involving bone regeneration and repair. Their ability to mimic the properties of natural bone and promote the healing process has contributed to their growing relevance. While calcium&ndash;phosphates and their composites with various polymers and biopolymers are widely used in clinical and experimental research, the diverse range of available polymer-based materials poses challenges in selecting the most suitable grafts for successful bone repair. This review aims to address the fundamental issues of bone biology and regeneration while providing a clear perspective on the principles guiding the development of synthetic materials. In this study, we delve into the basic principles underlying the creation of synthetic bone composites and explore the mechanisms of formation for biologically important complexes and structures associated with the various constituent parts of these materials. Additionally, we offer comprehensive information on the application of biologically active substances to enhance the properties and bioactivity of synthetic bone grafting materials. By presenting these insights, our review enables a deeper understanding of the regeneration processes facilitated by the application of synthetic bone composites.