Advancing strategies towards the development of tissue engineering scaffolds: a review
Abstract The field of tissue engineering involves various methodologies employed to improve or replace biological tissues with extracellular matrices (ECMs). Significant progress has been made, particularly in the fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds for replacing damaged tissues or organs. The current review broadly focuses on the various research works carried out involving the use of biomaterials (biopolymers, bio-ceramics and dopants) in this area. A detailed discussion on several scaffold-making modern technologies has also been provided, along with a demonstration of different characterization techniques. Though a number of review papers have been published on biomaterials and fabrication techniques, a very small number focuses on the clinical trials carried out and the commercialization of scaffolds in the biomedical field. Thus, a critical analysis and detailed discussion of some of the clinical trials, market growth, and future demands have been presented in this paper.