Laser-Induced Graphene on Optical Fibre: Towards Simple and Cost-Effective Electrochemical/Optical Lab-on-Fibre Bioplatforms
A 3D graphene foam made of interconnected multilayer graphene flakes was produced on optical fibres (OF) by laser-induced transformation of a polyimide (PI) film coated on the OF cladding. This material, known as laser-induced graphene (LIG), was explored in the electrochemical detection and quantification of dopamine (DA) at physiologically relevant concentrations in the presence of the most relevant interfering molecules in biological fluids, ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA). The measured limit of detection is 100 nM, the linear range is 0.1 to 5.0 &mu;M and a maximum sensitivity of 5.0 &micro;A &micro;M&minus;1 cm&minus;2 was obtained for LIG decorated with Pt nanoparticles (NPs). Moreover, immunity to AA and UA interference and to fouling was attained by decorating the LIG electrode with Pt NPs and coating it with Nafion. These figures of merit underline the potential of these sensors for the quantification of physiologically relevant concentrations of DA in biological fluids, paving the way for the development of hybrid electrochemical/optical sensing actuating platforms in a lab-on-fibre configuration, with relevant applications in biomedical engineering. The advantages of this hybrid arrangement include the possibility of in situ counterproofing, extended measuring ranges, photoelectrochemical detection and the probing of inaccessible places. This elegant approach can also provide a simple and cost-effective way to fabricate biomedical devices with extended functionality, such as medical optical probes with added electrochemical capabilities and optogenetics combined with local electrochemical detection, among others.
Publication date: 07/06/2023
Author: Laura L. Ferreira
Reference: doi: 10.3390/chemosensors11060338