Exploring the Feasibility of Cell-Free Synthesis as a Platform for Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) Production: Opportunities and Challenges
The extensive utilization of traditional petroleum-based plastics has resulted in significant damage to the natural environment and ecological systems, highlighting the urgent need for sustainable alternatives. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) have emerged as promising bioplastics that can compete with petroleum-based plastics. However, their production technology currently faces several challenges, primarily focused on high costs. Cell-free biotechnologies have shown significant potential for PHA production; however, despite recent progress, several challenges still need to be overcome. In this review, we focus on the status of cell-free PHA synthesis and compare it with microbial cell-based PHA synthesis in terms of advantages and drawbacks. Finally, we present prospects for the development of cell-free PHA synthesis.