Scaffold Using Chitosan, Agarose, Cellulose, Dextran and Protein for Tissue Engineering&mdash;A Review
Biological macromolecules like polysaccharides/proteins/glycoproteins have been widely used in the field of tissue engineering due to their ability to mimic the extracellular matrix of tissue. In addition to this, these macromolecules are found to have higher biocompatibility and no/lesser toxicity when compared to synthetic polymers. In recent years, scaffolds made up of proteins, polysaccharides, or glycoproteins have been highly used due to their tensile strength, biodegradability, and flexibility. This review is about the fabrication methods and applications of scaffolds made using various biological macromolecules, including polysaccharides like chitosan, agarose, cellulose, and dextran and proteins like soy proteins, zein proteins, etc. Biopolymer-based nanocomposite production and its application and limitations are also discussed in this review. This review also emphasizes the importance of using natural polymers rather than synthetic ones for developing scaffolds, as natural polymers have unique properties, like high biocompatibility, biodegradability, accessibility, stability, absence of toxicity, and low cost.