Bioactive Carbonate Apatite Cement with Enhanced Compressive Strength via Incorporation of Silica Calcium Phosphate Composites and Calcium Hydroxide
Carbonate apatite (CO3Ap) is a bioceramic material with excellent properties for bone and dentin regeneration. To enhance its mechanical strength and bioactivity, silica calcium phosphate composites (Si-CaP) and calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) were added to CO3Ap cement. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Si-CaP and Ca(OH)2 on the mechanical properties in terms of the compressive strength and biological characteristics of CO3Ap cement, specifically the formation of an apatite layer and the exchange of Ca, P, and Si elements. Five groups were prepared by mixing CO3Ap powder consisting of dicalcium phosphate anhydrous and vaterite powder added by varying ratios of Si-CaP and Ca(OH)2 and 0.2 mol/L Na2HPO4 as a liquid. All groups underwent compressive strength testing, and the group with the highest strength was evaluated for bioactivity by soaking it in simulated body fluid (SBF) for one, seven, 14, and 21 days. The group that added 3% Si-CaP and 7% Ca(OH)2 had the highest compressive strength among the groups. SEM analysis revealed the formation of needle-like apatite crystals from the first day of SBF soaking, and EDS analysis indicated an increase in Ca, P, and Si elements. XRD and FTIR analyses confirmed the presence of apatite. This combination of additives improved the compressive strength and showed the good bioactivity performance of CO3Ap cement, making it a potential biomaterial for bone and dental engineering applications.