Starch Nanoparticles: Preparation, Properties and Applications
Starch as a natural polymer is abundant and widely used in various industries around the world. In general, the preparation methods for starch nanoparticles (SNPs) can be classified into &lsquo;top-down&rsquo; and &lsquo;bottom-up&rsquo; methods. SNPs can be produced in smaller sizes and used to improve the functional properties of starch. Thus, they are considered for the various opportunities to improve the quality of product development with starch. This literature study presents information and reviews regarding SNPs, their general preparation methods, characteristics of the resulting SNPs and their applications, especially in food systems, such as Pickering emulsion, bioplastic filler, antimicrobial agent, fat replacer and encapsulating agent. The aspects related to the properties of SNPs and information on the extent of their utilisation are reviewed in this study. The findings can be utilised and encouraged by other researchers to develop and expand the applications of SNPs.