Preparation and Characterization of Polylactic Acid/Nano Hydroxyapatite/Nano Hydroxyapatite/Human Acellular Amniotic Membrane (PLA/nHAp/HAAM) Hybrid Scaffold for Bone Tissue Defect Repair
Bone tissue engineering is a novel and efficient repair method for bone tissue defects, and the key step of the bone tissue engineering repair strategy is to prepare non-toxic, metabolizable, biocompatible, bone-induced tissue engineering scaffolds of suitable mechanical strength. Human acellular amniotic membrane (HAAM) is mainly composed of collagen and mucopolysaccharide; it has a natural three-dimensional structure and no immunogenicity. In this study, a polylactic acid (PLA)/Hydroxyapatite (nHAp)/Human acellular amniotic membrane (HAAM) composite scaffold was prepared and the porosity, water absorption and elastic modulus of the composite scaffold were characterized. After that, the cell&ndash;scaffold composite was constructed using newborn Sprague Dawley (SD) rat osteoblasts to characterize the biological properties of the composite. In conclusion, the scaffolds have a composite structure of large and small holes with a large pore diameter of 200 &mu;m and a small pore diameter of 30 &mu;m. After adding HAAM, the contact angle of the composite decreases to 38.7&deg;, and the water absorption reaches 249.7%. The addition of nHAp can improve the scaffold&rsquo;s mechanical strength. The degradation rate of the PLA+nHAp+HAAM group was the highest, reaching 39.48% after 12 weeks. Fluorescence staining showed that the cells were evenly distributed and had good activity on the composite scaffold; the PLA+nHAp+HAAM scaffold has the highest cell viability. The adhesion rate to HAAM was the highest, and the addition of nHAp and HAAM could promote the rapid adhesion of cells to scaffolds. The addition of HAAM and nHAp can significantly promote the secretion of ALP. Therefore, the PLA/nHAp/HAAM composite scaffold can support the adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts in vitro which provide sufficient space for cell proliferation, and is suitable for the formation and development of solid bone tissue.