Evidence of silane coupling in torrefied agro?industrial residue?filled poly(styrene?co?butadiene) rubber compounds
AbstractIn tissue engineering technique, a biological scaffold with appropriate composition and structure for promoting growth and differentiation of cells thereby regenerating damaged tissue, is a prime necessity. In this paper, 3D?printed scaffolds comprising sodium alginate (SA) and chitosan (CH) biopolymers of natural origin are reported. Bioinks with varying ratios of SA and CH were prepared and scaffolds were fabricated by 3D printing. The fabricated scaffolds possess many desired properties that are vital for tissue regeneration purposes. The scaffolds possess open pore microstructures with interconnected pores and desired pore size as revealed by scanning electron microscopic image analysis. The polyelectrolyte complex formation (PEC) between SA and CH as revealed by Fourier?transform?infrared spectroscopic analysis is favorable as it offers a better surface for cell attachment and proliferation, and an ideal microenvironment for bone regeneration. Among the scaffolds, SA/CH with 60:40 showed controlled swelling and degradation behavior, with higher tensile strength of 0.387?±?0.015?MPa. In vitro?biomineralization showed superior apatite layer deposition ability over the SA/CH: 60/40 scaffold surface. The fabricated SA/CH scaffolds are hydrophilic and biocompatible as evident from the contact angle, protein adsorption, MTT assay, and cell attachment studies. However, SA/CH: 60/40 is shown to have superior biological properties compared with the other SA/CH compositions. Thus, it is concluded that 3Dv printed SA/CH: 60/40 scaffold having some superior properties and bioactivity can be used as a suitable matrix for future bone tissue regeneration applications.