Advances in Polymer?based Cell Encapsulation and Its Applications in Tissue Repair
Cell microencapsulation is a more widely accepted area of biological encapsulation. In most cases, it involves fixing cells in polymer scaffolds or semi?permeable hydrogel capsules, providing the environment for protecting cells, allowing the exchange of nutrients and oxygen, and protecting cells against the attack of the host immune system by preventing the entry of antibodies and cytotoxic immune cells. Hydrogel encapsulation provides a three?dimensional (3D) environment similar to that experienced in vivo, so it can maintain normal cellular functions to produce tissues similar to those in vivo. Embedded cells can be genetically modified to release specific therapeutic products directly at the target site, thereby eliminating the side effects of systemic treatments. Cellular microcarriers need to meet many extremely high standards regarding their biocompatibility, cytocompatibility, immunoseparation capacity, transport, mechanical and chemical properties. In this paper, we discuss the biopolymer gels used in tissue engineering applications and the brief introduction of cell encapsulation for therapeutic protein production. Also, we review polymer biomaterials and methods for preparing cell microcarriers for biomedical applications. At the same time, in order to improve the application performance of cell microcarriers in vivo, we also summarize the main limitations and improvement strategies of cell encapsulation. Finally, the main applications of polymer cell microcarriers in regenerative medicine are summarized.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.