Environment Friendly Pretreatment Approaches for the Bioconversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass into Biofuels and Value-Added Products
An upsurge in global population and rapid urbanization has accelerated huge dependence on petroleum-derived fuels and consequent environmental concerns owing to greenhouse gas emissions in the atmosphere. An integrated biorefinery uses lignocellulosic feedstock as raw material for the production of renewable biofuels, and other fine chemicals. The sustainable bio-economy and the biorefinery industry would benefit greatly from the effective use of lignocellulosic biomass obtained from agricultural feedstocks to replace petrochemical products. Lignin, cellulose, hemicellulose, and other extractives, which are essential components of lignocellulosic biomass, must be separated or upgraded into useful forms in order to fully realize the potential of biorefinery. The development of low-cost and green pretreatment technologies with effective biomass deconstruction potential is imperative for an efficient bioprocess. The abundance of microorganisms along with their continuous production of various degradative enzymes makes them suited for the environmentally friendly bioconversion of agro-industrial wastes into viable bioproducts. The present review highlights the concept of biorefinery, lignocellulosic biomass, and its valorization by green pretreatment strategies into biofuels and other biochemicals. The major barriers and challenges in bioconversion technologies, environmental sustainability of the bioproducts, and promising solutions to alleviate those bottlenecks are also summarized.