Surface Functionalization of Nanofibers: The Multifaceted Approach for Advanced Biomedical Applications
Nanocarriers are gaining significant importance in the modern era of drug delivery. Nanofiber technology is one of the prime paradigms in nanotechnology for various biomedical and theranostic applications. Nanofibers obtained after successful electrospinning subjected to surface functionalized for drug delivery, biomedical, tissue engineering, biosensing, cell imaging and wound dressing application. Surface functionalization entirely changes physicochemical and biological properties of nanofibers. In physicochemical properties, wettability, melting point, glass transition temperature, and initial decomposition temperature significantly change offer several advantageous for nanofibers. Similarly, biological properties include cell adhesion, biocompatibility, and proliferation, also changes by functionalization of nanofibers. Various natural and synthetic materials polymers, metals, carbon materials, functional groups, proteins, and peptides, are currently used for surface modification of nanofibers. Various research studies across the globe demonstrated the usefulness of surface functionalized nanofibers in tissue engineering, wound healing, skin cancers, melanoma, and disease diagnosis. The delivery of drug through surface functionalized nanofibers results in improved permeation and bioavailability of drug which is important for better targeting of disease and therapeutic efficacy. This review provides a comprehensive insight about various techniques of surface functionalization of nanofibers along with its biomedical applications, toxicity assessment and global patent scenario.