Possible Synergies of Nanomaterial-Assisted Tissue Regeneration in Plasma Medicine: Mechanisms and Safety Concerns
Cold atmospheric plasma and nanomedicine originally emerged as individual domains, but are increasingly applied in combination with each other. Most research is performed in the context of cancer treatment, with only little focus yet on the possible synergies. Many questions remain on the potential of this promising hybrid technology, particularly regarding regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. In this perspective article, we therefore start from the fundamental mechanisms in the individual technologies, in order to envision possible synergies for wound healing and tissue recovery, as well as research strategies to discover and optimize them. Among these strategies, we demonstrate how cold plasmas and nanomaterials can enhance each other&rsquo;s strengths and overcome each other&rsquo;s limitations. The parallels with cancer research, biotechnology and plasma surface modification further serve as inspiration for the envisioned synergies in tissue regeneration. The discovery and optimization of synergies may also be realized based on a profound understanding of the underlying redox- and field-related biological processes. Finally, we emphasize the toxicity concerns in plasma and nanomedicine, which may be partly remediated by their combination, but also partly amplified. A widespread use of standardized protocols and materials is therefore strongly recommended, to ensure both a fast and safe clinical implementation.