Biomass conversion of agricultural waste residues for different applications: a comprehensive review
Agricultural waste residues (agro-waste) are the source of carbohydrates that generally go in vain or remain unused despite their interesting morphological, chemical, and mechanical properties. With rapid urbanization, there is a need to valorize this waste due to limited non-renewable resources. Utilizing agro-waste also prevents the problems like burning and inefficient disposal that otherwise lead to immense pollution worldwide. In addition, conversion of biomass to value-added products like earthen cups, weaving baskets, and bricks is equally beneficial for the rural population as it provides secondary income, creates jobs, and improves rural people’s lifestyles. This review paper will discuss an overview of different applications utilizing agro-waste residues. In particular, agro-wastes used as construction material, bio-fertilizers, pulp and paper products, packaging products, tableware, heating applications, biocomposites, nano-cellulosic materials, soil stabilizers, bioplastics, fire-retardant additive, dye removal, and biofuels will be summarized. Finally, several commercially available agro-waste products will also be discussed, emphasizing the circular economy.