Application of Fibrin Associated with Photobiomodulation as a Promising Strategy to Improve Regeneration in Tissue Engineering: A Systematic Review
Fibrin, derived from proteins involved in blood clotting (fibrinogen and thrombin), is a biopolymer with different applications in the health area since it has hemostasis, biocompatible and three-dimensional physical structure properties, and can be used as scaffolds in tissue regeneration or drug delivery system for cells and/or growth factors. Fibrin alone or together with other biomaterials, has been indicated for use as a biological support to promote the regeneration of stem cells, bone, peripheral nerves, and other injured tissues. In its diversity of forms of application and constitution, there are platelet-rich fibrin (PRF), Leukocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF), fibrin glue or fibrin sealant, and hydrogels. In order to increase fibrin properties, adjuvant therapies can be combined to favor tissue repair, such as photobiomodulation (PBM), by low-level laser therapy (LLLT) or LEDs (Light Emitting Diode). Therefore, this systematic review aimed to evaluate the relationship between PBM and the use of fibrin compounds, referring to the results of previous studies published in PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus and Web of Science databases. The descriptors &ldquo;fibrin AND low-level laser therapy&rdquo; and &ldquo;fibrin AND photobiomodulation&rdquo; were used, without restriction on publication time. The bibliographic search found 44 articles in PubMed/MEDLINE, of which 26 were excluded due to duplicity or being outside the eligibility criteria. We also found 40 articles in Web of Science and selected 1 article, 152 articles in Scopus and no article selected, totaling 19 articles for qualitative analysis. The fibrin type most used in combination with PBM was fibrin sealant, mainly heterologous, followed by PRF or L-PRF. In PBM, the gallium-aluminum-arsenide (GaAlAs) laser prevailed, with a wavelength of 830 nm, followed by 810 nm. Among the preclinical studies, the most researched association of fibrin and PBM was the use of fibrin sealants in bone or nerve injuries; in clinical studies, the association of PBM with medication-related treatments osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ). Therefore, there is scientific evidence of the contribution of PBM on fibrin composites, constituting a supporting therapy that acts by stimulating cell activity, angiogenesis, osteoblast activation, axonal growth, anti-inflammatory and anti-edema action, increased collagen synthesis and its maturation, as well as biomolecules.
Publication date: 02/08/2022
Author: Carlos Henrique Bertoni Reis
Reference: doi: 10.3390/polym14153150