Bilayer Hydrogels for Wound Dressing and Tissue Engineering
A large number of different skin diseases such as hits, acute, and chronic wounds dictate the search for alternative and effective treatment options. The wound healing process requires a complex approach, the key step of which is the choice of a dressing with controlled properties. Hydrogel-based scaffolds can serve as a unique class of wound dressings. Presented on the commercial market, hydrogel wound dressings are not found among proposals for specific cases and have a number of disadvantages&mdash;toxicity, allergenicity, and mechanical instability. Bilayer dressings are attracting great attention, which can be combined with multifunctional properties, high criteria for an ideal wound dressing (antimicrobial properties, adhesion and hemostasis, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects), drug delivery, self-healing, stimulus manifestation, and conductivity, depending on the preparation and purpose. In addition, advances in stem cell biology and biomaterials have enabled the design of hydrogel materials for skin tissue engineering. To improve the heterogeneity of the cell environment, it is possible to use two-layer functional gradient hydrogels. This review summarizes the methods and application advantages of bilayer dressings in wound treatment and skin tissue regeneration. Bilayered hydrogels based on natural as well as synthetic polymers are presented. The results of the in vitro and in vivo experiments and drug release are also discussed.