Simultaneous Substitution of Fe and Sr in Beta-Tricalcium Phosphate: Synthesis, Structural, Magnetic, Degradation, and Cell Adhesion Properties
&beta;-tricalcium phosphate is a promising bone graft substitute material with biocompatibility and high osteoinductivity. However, research on the ideal degradation and absorption for better clinical application remains a challenge. Now, we focus on modifying physicochemical properties and improving biological properties through essential ion co-substitution (Fe and Sr) in &beta;-TCPs. Fe- and Sr-substituted and Fe/Sr co-substituted &beta;-TCP were synthesized by aqueous co-precipitation with substitution levels ranging from 0.2 to 1.0 mol%. The &beta;-TCP phase was detected by X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Changes in Ca&ndash;O and P&ndash;O bond lengths of the co-substituted samples were observed through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results of VSM represent the M-H graph having a combination of diamagnetic and ferromagnetic properties. A TRIS&ndash;HCl solution immersion test showed that the degradation and resorption functions act synergistically on the surface of the co-substituted sample. Cell adhesion tests demonstrated that Fe enhances the initial adhesion and proliferation behavior of hDPSCs. The present work suggests that Fe and Sr co-substitution in &beta;-TCP can be a candidate for promising bone graft materials in tissue engineering fields. In addition, the possibility of application of hyperthermia for cancer treatment can be expected.