3D Printing of PLLA/Biomineral Composite Bone Tissue Engineering Scaffolds
Tissue engineering is one of the most effective ways to treat bone defects in recent years. However, current highly active bone tissue engineering (BTE) scaffolds are mainly based on the addition of active biological components (such as growth factors) to promote bone repair. High cost, easy inactivation and complex regulatory requirements greatly limit their practical applications. In addition, conventional fabrication methods make it difficult to meet the needs of personalized customization for the macroscopic and internal structure of tissue engineering scaffolds. Herein, this paper proposes to select five natural biominerals (eggshell, pearl, turtle shell, degelatinated deer antler and cuttlebone) with widely available sources, low price and potential osteo-inductive activity as functional particles. Subsequently compounding them into L-polylactic acid (PLLA) biomaterial ink to further explore 3D printing processes of the composite scaffold, and reveal their potential as biomimetic 3D scaffolds for bone tissue repair. The research results of this project provide a new idea for the construction of a 3D scaffold with growth-factor-free biomimetic structure, personalized customization ability and osteo-inductive activity.