Recent advances of chitosan-based polymers in biomedical applications and environmental protection
Abstract Interest in polymer-based biomaterials such as chitosan and its modifications and also the methods of their application in various fields of science is uninterruptedly growing. Owing to unique physicochemical, biological, ecological, physiological properties, such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, stability in the natural environment, non-toxicity, high biological activity, economic affordability, chelating of metal ions, high sorption properties, chitosan is used in various biomedical and industrial processes. The reactivity of the amino and hydroxyl groups in the structure makes it more interesting for diverse applications in drug delivery, tissue engineering, wound healing, regenerative medicine, blood anticoagulation and bone, tendon or blood vessel engineering, dentistry, biotechnology, biosensing, cosmetics, water treatment, agriculture. Taking into account the current situation in the world with COVID-19 and other viruses, chitosan is also active in the form of a vaccine system, it can deliver antibodies to the nasal mucosa and load gene drugs that prevent or disrupt the replication of viral DNA/RNA, and deliver them to infected cells. The presented article is an overview of the nowaday state of the application of chitosan, based on literature of recent years, showing importance of fundamental and applied studies aimed to expand application of chitosan-based polymers in many fields of science.