Bioprocessing of Wheat and Amaranth Bran for the Reduction of Fructan Levels and Application in 3D-Printed Snacks
Bran can enrich snacks with dietary fibre but contains fructans that trigger symptoms in people with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). This study aimed to investigate the bioprocessing of wheat and amaranth bran for degrading fructans and its application (at 20% flour-based) in 3D-printed snacks. Bran was bioprocessed with Saccharomyces cerevisiae alone or combined with inulinase, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Limosilactobacillus fermentum, or commercial starter LV1 for 24 h. Fructans, fructose, glucose, and mannitol in the bran were analysed enzymatically. Dough rheology, snack printing precision, shrinkage in baking, texture, colour, and sensory attributes were determined. The fructan content of wheat bran was 2.64% dry weight, and in amaranth bran, it was 0.96% dry weight. Bioprocessing reduced fructan content (up to 93%) depending on the bran type and bioprocessing agent, while fructose and mannitol remained below the cut-off value for IBS patients. Bran bioprocessing increased the complex viscosity and yield stress of dough (by up to 43 and 183%, respectively) in addition to printing precision (by up to 13%), while it lessened shrinkage in baking (by 20&ndash;69%) and the hardness of the snacks (by 20%). The intensity of snack sensory attributes depended on the bran type and bioprocessing agent, but the liking (&ldquo;neither like nor dislike&rdquo;) was similar between samples. In conclusion, snacks can be enriched with fibre while remaining low in fructans by applying bioprocessed wheat or amaranth bran and 3D printing.