Plant Extract?Based Synthesis of Metallic Nanomaterials, Their Applications, and Safety Concerns
Nanotechnology has attracted the attention of researchers from different scientific fields because of the escalated properties of nanomaterials compared with the properties of macromolecules. Nanomaterials can be prepared through different approaches involving physical and chemical methods. The development of nanomaterials through plant?based green chemistry approaches is more advantageous than other methods from the perspectives of environmental safety, animal, and human health. The biomolecules and metabolites of plants act as reducing and capping agents for the synthesis of metallic green nanomaterials. Plant?based synthesis is a preferred approach as it is not only cost?effective, easy, safe, clean, and eco?friendly but also provides pure nanomaterials in high yield. Since nanomaterials have antimicrobial and antioxidant potential, green nanomaterials synthesized from plants can be used for a variety of biomedical and environmental remediation applications. Past studies have focused mainly on the overall biogenic synthesis of individual or combinations of metallic nanomaterials and their oxides from different biological sources, including microorganisms and biomolecules. Moreover, from the viewpoint of biomedical applications, the literature is mainly focusing on synthetic nanomaterials. Herein, we discuss the extraction of green molecules and recent developments in the synthesis of different plant?based metallic nanomaterials, including silver, gold, platinum, palladium, copper, zinc, iron, and carbon. Apart from the biomedical applications of metallic nanomaterials, including antimicrobial, anticancer, diagnostic, drug delivery, tissue engineering, and regenerative medicine applications, their environmental remediation potential is also discussed. Furthermore, safety concerns and safety regulations pertaining to green nanomaterials are also discussed.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.