A Critical Review of Additive Manufacturing Techniques and Associated Biomaterials Used in Bone Tissue Engineering
With the ability to fabricate complex structures while meeting individual needs, additive manufacturing (AM) offers unprecedented opportunities for bone tissue engineering in the biomedical field. However, traditional metal implants have many adverse effects due to their poor integration with host tissues, and therefore new material implants with porous structures are gradually being developed that are suitable for clinical medical applications. From the perspectives of additive manufacturing technology and materials, this article discusses a suitable manufacturing process for ideal materials for biological bone tissue engineering. It begins with a review of the methods and applicable materials in existing additive manufacturing technologies and their applications in biomedicine, introducing the advantages and disadvantages of various AM technologies. The properties of materials including metals and polymers, commonly used AM technologies, recent developments, and their applications in bone tissue engineering are discussed in detail and summarized. In addition, the main challenges for different metallic and polymer materials, such as biodegradability, anisotropy, growth factors to promote the osteogenic capacity, and enhancement of mechanical properties are also introduced. Finally, the development prospects for AM technologies and biomaterials in bone tissue engineering are considered.