Latest Advances in 3D Bioprinting of Cardiac Tissues
The application of 3D bioprinting is rapidly growing for cardiac tissue engineering. This review summarizes the fundamentals of cardiac biology, bioprinting, bioinks, and cells implemented for cardiac regeneration. Additionally, it covers the pioneering and state?of?the?art investigations regarding bioprinting of cardiac tissues. Finally, regulatory pathways and their contemporary limitations and challenges for clinical translation are discussed.Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are known as the major cause of death worldwide. In spite of tremendous advancements in medical therapy, the gold standard for CVD treatment is still transplantation. Tissue engineering, on the other hand, has emerged as a pioneering field of study with promising results in tissue regeneration using cells, biological cues, and scaffolds. 3D bioprinting is a rapidly growing technique in tissue engineering because of its ability to create complex scaffold structures, encapsulate cells, and perform these tasks with precision. More recently, 3D bioprinting has made its debut in cardiac tissue engineering, and scientists are investigating this technique for development of new strategies for cardiac tissue regeneration. In this review, the fundamentals of cardiac tissue biology, available 3D bioprinting techniques and bioinks, and cells implemented for cardiac regeneration are briefly summarized and presented. Afterward, the pioneering and state?of?the?art works that have utilized 3D bioprinting for cardiac tissue engineering are thoroughly reviewed. Finally, regulatory pathways and their contemporary limitations and challenges for clinical translation are discussed.