Three?dimensional printing of mechanically resistant poly (glycerol sebacate) (PGS)?zein scaffolds for potential cardiac tissue engineering applications
Due to the limited regenerative capacity of natural human myocardium, 3D printing of the cyclic polyester poly (glycerol sebacate) (PGS) offers a promising alternative to produce scaffolds (cardiac patches) for cardiac tissue engineering. Since the 3D printability and subsequent thermal crosslinking of pure PGS without any modification or additives is challenging, a PGS?zein?salt based printing process is developed in this work by mixing PGS pre?polymer with ground and sieved sodium chloride particles and additionally with different amounts of the corn protein zein. The resulting inks show excellent printability and high shape fidelity both during the printing process and after thermal crosslinking. Chemical analysis indicates the successful integration of zein into the PGS backbone. Mechanical characterization shows anisotropic behavior of the structure in alternating printing direction. Subsequent biological assessments reveal no cytotoxic effects on C2C12 cells, rendering the developed PGS?zein combination a suitable material for 3D printing of cardiac patches.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.