Application of Nanotechnology in the Production of Biohydrogen: A Review
Biohydrogen production from renewable natural resources is an eco?friendly, sustainable, and green technology. The application of various nanoparticles and their processes are critically reviewed. Multidisciplinary approaches using microbiology, chemical engineering, nanotechnology, and mechanical engineering can bring favorable solutions for biohydrogen production using renewable resources. Hydrogen is an outstanding source of energy that does not create any hostile carbon footprint as it produces only water during combustion. The application of nanotechnology is one of the recent advanced technologies used to enhance the rate of hydrogen production from biomass. The use of nanoparticles (NPs) in the conversion process enhances this rate. Biological methods such as dark fermentation and photobiological route of conversion of biomass to hydrogen are the most suitable and cost?effective paths. Hydrogen production with nanotechnology in dark fermentation utilizes organic or inorganic NPs in the bioreactor membrane. The efficiency of biohydrogen production depends on the concentration and nature of the NPs used, and the kind of biowastes or biomass feed. The effectiveness of both processes is discussed.