Advances in Modification Methods Based on Biodegradable Membranes in Guided Bone/Tissue Regeneration: A Review
Guided tissue/bone regeneration (GTR/GBR) is commonly applied in dentistry to aid in the regeneration of bone/tissue at a defective location, where the assistive material eventually degrades to be substituted with newly produced tissue. Membranes separate the rapidly propagating soft tissue from the slow-growing bone tissue for optimal tissue regeneration results. A broad membrane exposure area, biocompatibility, hardness, ductility, cell occlusion, membrane void ratio, tissue integration, and clinical manageability are essential functional properties of a GTR/GBR membrane, although no single modern membrane conforms to all of the necessary characteristics. This review considers ongoing bone/tissue regeneration engineering research and the GTR/GBR materials described in this review fulfill all of the basic ISO requirements for human use, as determined through risk analysis and rigorous testing. Novel modified materials are in the early stages of development and could be classified as synthetic polymer membranes, biological extraction synthetic polymer membranes, or metal membranes. Cell attachment, proliferation, and subsequent tissue development are influenced by the physical features of GTR/GBR membrane materials, including pore size, porosity, and mechanical strength. According to the latest advances, key attributes of nanofillers introduced into a polymer matrix include suitable surface area, better mechanical capacity, and stability, which enhances cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. Therefore, it is essential to construct a bionic membrane that satisfies the requirements for the mechanical barrier, the degradation rate, osteogenesis, and clinical operability.