Surface Functionalization of Ureteral Stents-Based Polyurethane: Engineering Antibacterial Coatings
Bacterial colonization of polyurethane (PU) ureteral stents usually leads to severe and challenging clinical complications. As such, there is an increasing demand for an effective response to this unmet medical challenge. In this study, we offer a strategy based on the functionalization of PU stents with chitosan-fatty acid (CS-FA) derivatives to prevent bacterial colonization. Three different fatty acids (FAs), namely stearic acid (SA), oleic acid (OA), and linoleic acid (LinA), were successfully grafted onto chitosan (CS) polymeric chains. Afterwards, CS-FA derivatives-based solutions were coated on the surface of PU stents. The biological performance of the modified PU stents was evaluated against the L929 cell line, confirming negligible cytotoxicity of the developed coating formulations. The antibacterial potential of coated PU stents was also evaluated against several microorganisms. The obtained data indicate that the base material already presents an adequate performance against Staphylococcus aureus, which slightly improved with the coating. However, the performance of the PU stents against Gram-negative bacteria was markedly increased with the surface functionalization approach herein used. As a result, this study reveals the potential use of CS-FA derivatives for surface functionalization of ureteral PU stents and allows for conjecture on its successful application in other biomedical devices.