Nanotechnology in the Restoration of Polluted Soil
The advancements in nanoparticles (NPs) may be lighting the sustainable and eco-friendly path to accelerate the removal of toxic compounds from contaminated soils. Many efforts have been made to increase the efficiency of phytoremediation, such as the inclusion of chemical additives, the application of rhizobacteria, genetic engineering, etc. In this context, the integration of nanotechnology with bioremediation has introduced new dimensions for revamping the remediation methods. Hence, advanced remediation approaches combine nanotechnological and biological remediation methods in which the nanoscale process regulation supports the adsorption and deterioration of pollutants. Nanoparticles absorb/adsorb a large variety of contaminants and also catalyze reactions by lowering the energy required to break them down, owing to their unique surface properties. As a result, this remediation process reduces the accumulation of pollutants while limiting their spread from one medium to another. Therefore, this review article deals with all possibilities for the application of NPs for the remediation of contaminated soils and associated environmental concerns.