Biological Characterization of Polymeric Matrix and Graphene Oxide Biocomposites Filaments for Biomedical Implant Applications: A Preliminary Report
Carbon nanostructures application, such as graphene (Gr) and graphene oxide (GO), provides suitable efforts for new material acquirement in biomedical areas. By aiming to combine the unique physicochemical properties of GO to Poly L-lactic acid (PLLA), PLLA-GO filaments were produced and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The in vivo biocompatibility of these nanocomposites was performed by subcutaneous and intramuscular implantation in adult Wistar rats. Evaluation of the implantation inflammatory response (21 days) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with PLLA-GO took place in culture for 7 days. Through XRD, new crystallographic planes were formed by mixing GO with PLLA (PLLA-GO). Using macroscopic analysis, GO implanted in the subcutaneous region showed particles’ organization, forming a structure similar to a ribbon, without tissue invasion. Histologically, no tissue architecture changes were observed, and PLLA-GO cell adhesion was demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Finally, PLLA-GO nanocomposites showed promising results due to the in vivo biocompatibility test, which demonstrated effective integration and absence of inflammation after 21 days of implantation. These results indicate the future use of PLLA-GO nanocomposites as a new effort for tissue engineering (TE) application, although further analysis is required to evaluate their proliferative capacity and viability.