Structural and Material Determinants Influencing the Behavior of Porous Ti and Its Alloys Made by Additive Manufacturing Techniques for Biomedical Applications
One of the biggest challenges in tissue engineering is the manufacturing of porous structures that are customized in size and shape and that mimic natural bone structure. Additive manufacturing is known as a sufficient method to produce 3D porous structures used as bone substitutes in large segmental bone defects. The literature indicates that the mechanical and biological properties of scaffolds highly depend on geometrical features of structure (pore size, pore shape, porosity), surface morphology, and chemistry. The objective of this review is to present the latest advances and trends in the development of titanium scaffolds concerning the relationships between applied materials, manufacturing methods, and interior architecture determined by porosity, pore shape, and size, and the mechanical, biological, chemical, and physical properties. Such a review is assumed to show the real achievements and, on the other side, shortages in so far research.