A Porous Sodium Alginate-CaSiO 3 Polymer Reinforced with Graphene Nanosheet: Fabrication and Optimality Analysis
Bone regeneration is a growing and relatively effective treatment in most bone disease treatments. Adverse effects associated with conventional transplantation techniques have led to advanced bone tissue engineering. The purpose of this study is to produce a bone scaffold, made of sodium alginate (Na-Alg) based scaffold, with the addition of wollastonite-graphene nanosheet (WS-GS) with similar mechanical properties to normal bone. First, the Na-Alg-WS-GS nanocomposites are fabricated using freeze-drying technique in which GS is used as additives with different weight percentages (0, 1, 2 and 3 wt%). The fabricated nanocomposite scaffolds are tested and analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyzes. The maximum tensile strength, lowest decrease in sample area and stress yield is tested using mechanical testing. Then, the biological response in the biological environment, pH and weight changes after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) and phosphate buffered saline (PBS) is determined. The results show that the sample with 1 wt% GS has an appropriate capacity for reconstitution in the biological solution. The SEM shows an appropriate porosity of the scaffolds and a uniform distribution of GS in the polymeric matrix. The SEM images shows that as the amount of GS increases, the swelling capacity of the nanocomposites rises, regarding the weak bonding of GS and polymeric matrix. Additional amount of GS leads to increase in the tensile strength with the sample containing 1 wt%, however increasing of GS may decreases the mechanical performance of the structure. To gain the optimal combination of scaffold with the best mechanical and biological properties, the Global Criterion Method (GCM) is utilized. The obtained results show that the prepared nanocomposites are suitable for further development in tissue engineering and can be suitable for the bone substitutes application with desirable mechanical performance.