Enhanced Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Primary Mesenchymal Stem and Progenitor Cultures on Graphene Oxide/Poly(methyl methacrylate) Composite Scaffolds
Due to its versatility, small size, large surface area, and ability to interact with biological cells and tissues, graphene oxide (GO) is an excellent filler for various polymeric composites and is frequently used to expand their functionality. Even though the major advantage of the incorporation of GO is the enhancement of mechanical properties of the composite material, GO is also known to improve bioactivity during biomineralization and promote osteoblast adhesion. In this study, we described the fabrication of a composite bone cement made of GO and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), and we investigated its potential to enhance osteogenic differentiation of human primary mesenchymal stem and progenitor cells. Through the analysis of three differentiation markers, namely alkaline phosphatase, secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine, and bone morphogenetic protein-2 in the presence and in the absence of an osteogenic differentiation medium, we were able to indicate a composite produced manually with a thick GO paper as the most effective among all investigated samples. This effect was related to its developed surface, possessing a significant number of voids and pores. In this way, GO/PMMA composites were shown as promising materials for the applications in bone tissue engineering.
Publication date: 05/07/2020
Author: Katarzyna Krukiewicz
Reference: doi: 10.3390/ma13132991