Cutting-Edge Progress in Stimuli-Responsive Bioadhesives: From Synthesis to Clinical Applications
With the advent of &ldquo;intelligent&rdquo; materials, the design of smart bioadhesives responding to chemical, physical, or biological stimuli has been widely developed in biomedical applications to minimize the risk of wounds reopening, chronic pain, and inflammation. Intelligent bioadhesives are free-flowing liquid solutions passing through a phase shift in the physiological environment due to stimuli such as light, temperature, pH, and electric field. They possess great merits, such as ease to access and the ability to sustained release as well as the spatial transfer of a biomolecule with reduced side effects. Tissue engineering, wound healing, drug delivery, regenerative biomedicine, cancer therapy, and other fields have benefited from smart bioadhesives. Recently, many disciplinary attempts have been performed to promote the functionality of smart bioadhesives and discover innovative compositions. However, according to our knowledge, the development of multifunctional bioadhesives for various biomedical applications has not been adequately explored. This review aims to summarize the most recent cutting-edge strategies (years 2015&ndash;2021) developed for stimuli-sensitive bioadhesives responding to external stimuli. We first focus on five primary categories of stimuli-responsive bioadhesive systems (pH, thermal, light, electric field, and biomolecules), their properties, and limitations. Following the introduction of principal criteria for smart bioadhesives, their performances are discussed, and certain smart polymeric materials employed in their creation in 2015 are studied. Finally, advantages, disadvantages, and future directions regarding smart bioadhesives for biomedical applications are surveyed.